Tuesday, November 19, 2013

New flu vaccine improvements may mean more people get that much-needed flu shot

MAYWOOD, Ill. – Egg allergies and fear of needles are no longer arguments to avoid getting the flu vaccine, thanks to improvements now available this year. That’s good news because the flu virus has already struck.

Loyola University Health System diagnosed its first case of the flu for the 2013-14 season on Tuesday, Nov. 5.

“Autumn usually signals the traditional beginning of the flu season in America, so one case in early November is normal and right on schedule,” said Jorge Parada, MD, MPH, the medical director of the Infection Prevention and Control Program at Loyola. “Last year we had an unusually early flu season and we diagnosed cases in early October."

Flu season usually peaks around mid-February and ends in March but can extend as late as May.

2013-14 Flu Vaccine Highlights

“A new flu vaccine is offered this year that protects against four strains of the flu; the traditional flu vaccine protects against three strains,” Parada said. “The four-strain variety is available in very limited quantity and will likely be more widespread next year if it is effective."

Loyola recently completed its fifth year of mandatory flu vaccination for employees, students, volunteers and vendors. “Loyola administered the three-strain vaccine to our staff and we will potentially offer the four-strain version of the vaccine next year, depending on data regarding efficacy and side effects,” said Parada, who leads the flu vaccination protocol for Loyola.

Also new this year, those who have egg allergies now have access to a completely egg-free vaccine. “Flublok is available to adults ages 18 through 49, and is recommended for those with a severe anaphylactic egg allergy,” Parada said.

Those who have a fear of needles can now benefit from the intradermal flu vaccine which uses a very fine needle that is 90 percent smaller than the needles used for regular flu shots.

“The intradermal flu vaccine is injected into the superficial skin instead of the deeper muscle and is preferred by some patients,” Parada said. A needle-less vaccine administered via a nasal flu mist is also available on a limited basis to those ages 2 through 49 who are healthy.

“Washing your hands continues to be the best advice to prevent the flu. Of course, everyone should get a flu vaccine - early in the season is preferred - to protect themselves, their family and friends, and to prevent the spread of the flu virus overall,” said Parada, who recently was appointed a fellow in the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, the leading medical infection prevention organization. “Herd immunity is a medical term that refers to the prevention of infectious disease due to mass public vaccination and herd immunity has helped to eradicate smallpox and control measles, whooping cough, polio and many other deadly illnesses, including the flu."

Parada’s Bottom Line

The flu shot is readily available and is recommended any time during the flu season. “The earlier in the season you receive it, the longer you will be protected,” said Parada, who began administering the flu shot within the Loyola system in September.

The flu vaccine has a long track record and is a safe and reasonably effective vaccine. On the other hand, catching the flu is not safe and is uncomfortable to say the least.

“Seriously, who wants to spend the holidays sick in bed, and perhaps being responsible for getting other friends and family members sick?” Parada asked. “The flu is not a good holiday gift idea, but the flu shot certainly is for those who have yet to be vaccinated."

Parada Busts Flu Myths

Here are some common myths about the flu vaccine that Dr. Parada and his colleagues frequently hear at Loyola:

I have the stomach flu. “The flu is a respiratory illness and rarely are nausea, diarrhea and vomiting the main symptoms,” Parada said. “People may have diarrhea and other stomach upset, and it may be from a virus infection, but it is unlikely to be from the flu virus."

I got the flu from the flu shot. "It is not true to say that the flu shot can give someone the flu,” Parada said. “Remember, it takes two weeks from vaccine injection for a person’s protective immunity to become effective. Thus, if a person gets exposed to the virus right around the time he or she gets the vaccine, they may experience the flu during that window before the vaccine has time to kick in. In these cases, it is not the flu shot that gave the person the flu, but rather that they did not get the flu shot early enough to be protected when they were exposed and infected by the flu virus."

Parada also notes that there are many varieties of flu, and depending on which vaccine you get, it will target the three or four dominant strains. "People may not know that typically three to four dominant varieties of flu circulate every season. As a result, people can get the flu several times within a season, but they are actually getting different varieties of the flu," he said. “All the more reason to get the flu shot!"

Last year’s flu shot will protect me this year. “The vaccine is effective for one flu season, so everyone needs to get the vaccine every year,” he said. “People with chronic conditions may be advised by their physician to get a second flu booster later in the season to provide best protection."

I am allergic to the flu shot. “New this year is an egg-free flu vaccine and latex-free formulas have been around for some time,” Parada said. “It is becoming increasing rare that people have true vaccine reactions, and those who had them in the past may be happy to know that they may no longer have problems with the new vaccines today."

History of the Flu Vaccines

The flu shot was first distributed in the 1940s to American soldiers by the U.S. government. Loyola University Health System was one of the first academic medical centers to offer mandatory flu vaccines to not only its employees but also vendors, medical students and volunteers, Parada said.

Many pharmacies and retail outlets now offer flu shots. "The greater the access to health care by the general public, the better off the entire community," Parada said. "Many retail providers rush to be the first to offer the flu vaccine because it generates profits to the store. That may create a false sense of urgency."

Dr. Parada feels a benefit in getting a flu shot from your primary care physician is that it encourages a conversation. "Most people do not readily go to the doctor, especially at a time when they are not actively sick," he said. "A visit to the doctor to get the flu shot is an opportunity to discuss health matters, get basic health maintenance and get follow-up care if necessary, which is a good thing."

Vaccines are designed to protect against the influenza viruses that experts predict will be the most common during the upcoming season. Three kinds of influenza viruses commonly circulate among people today: Influenza A (H1N1) viruses, influenza A (H3N2) viruses and influenza B viruses. Each year, these viruses are used to produce seasonal influenza vaccine. Some years a second Influenza B strain also circulates in large numbers, and that is why the four-variety vaccine was developed.

The 2013-14 trivalent influenza vaccine is made from the following three viruses:

  • A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus
  • A(H3N2) virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011
  • B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus.

The quadrivalent vaccine contains the above three viruses and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.

Loyola is a crusader in the war on infectious disease. Loyola was the first university medical center to screen all hospital patients for MRSA, is in its fifth year of mandatory flu vaccination for employees, students, volunteers and vendors and uses advanced technology to accurately identify 17 viral and three bacterial pathogens in about 60 minutes in the lab. Loyola also this year invested in two infectious disease robots that are used to kill germs in hospital rooms for greater protection against infection.

About Loyola University Health System

Loyola University Health System (LUHS) is a member of Trinity Health. Based in the western suburbs of Chicago, LUHS is a quaternary care system that includes Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC), located on a 61-acre campus in Maywood, Gottlieb Memorial Hospital (GMH), on a 36-acre campus in Melrose Park, and convenient locations offering primary and specialty care services throughout Cook, Will and DuPage counties. At the heart of LUMC is a 547-licensed-bed hospital that houses the Center for Heart & Vascular Medicine, the Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, a Level 1 trauma center, a burn center, a children's hospital, Loyola Outpatient Center, and Loyola Oral Health Center. The campus also is home to Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing and the Loyola Center for Fitness. The GMH campus includes a 254-licensed-bed community hospital, a Professional Office Building with 150 private practice clinics, an adult day care program, the Gottlieb Center for Fitness, the Loyola Center for Metabolic Surgery and Bariatric Care and the Loyola Cancer Care & Research at the Marjorie G. Weinberg Cancer Center at Melrose Park.

Trinity Health is one of the largest multi-institutional Catholic health care delivery systems in the nation. It serves people and communities in 22 states from coast to coast with 93 hospitals, and 120 continuing care locations — including home care, hospice, PACE and senior living facilities — that provide nearly 2.5 million visits annually.