Monday, June 15, 2015

'Dawning of a New Age' in Bacteria Research

Loyola Researcher Discovers a Complexity Once Unknown

MAYWOOD, Ill. -- Lowly bacteria are turning out to be much more complex than previously thought.

In the July, 2010 issue of the journal Molecular Microbiology, Loyola University Health System researchers describe an example of bacterial complexity, called "protein acetylation," which once was thought to be rare in bacteria.

This discovery that protein acetylation is common in bacteria has led to the "dawning of a new age" in bacterial research, senior author Alan Wolfe, PhD. and colleagues wrote.

Protein acetylation is a molecular reaction inside the cell. It modifies and thus affects the function of proteins, including the molecular machinery responsible for turning genes on or off.

Bacteria make up one of the three domains of life. The other two domains are archaea (single-cell organisms distinct from bacteria) and eukaryotes (which include plants and animals). Bacteria evolved before eukaryotes, but they are not as primitive as once thought.

"Bacteria have long been considered simple relatives of eukaryotes," Wolfe and colleagues wrote. "Obviously, this misperception must be modified."

For example, protein acetylation historically had been considered mostly a eukaryotic phenomenon. But recent research indicates that acetylation also has a broad impact on bacterial physiology.

"There is a whole process going on that we have been blind to," Wolfe said.

Wolfe's laboratory works with intestinal bacteria called Escherichia coli, commonly called E. coli. While some strains of E. coli can cause serious food poisoning, most strains are harmless or even beneficial.

E. coli and its 4,000 genes have been extensively studied for decades. Consequently, researchers now have the ability to quickly determine what happens when a gene is deleted or made more active. "We're explorers with lots of tools," Wolfe said.

Studying protein acetylation will improve scientists' basic understanding of how bacterial cells work. This in turn could lead to new drugs to, for example, kill or cripple harmful bacteria.

"We're in the very early days of this research," Wolfe said. "We're riding the front of the wave, and that's exhilarating. The graduate students in my lab are working practically around the clock, because they know how important this is."

Wolfe is a microbial geneticist and professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. His co-authors are graduate students Linda Hu and Bruno Lima.

Wolfe's lab is supported by the Stritch School of Medicine Research Funding Committee and by a four-year $2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health.

About Loyola University Health System

Loyola University Health System (LUHS) is part of Trinity Health. Based in the western suburbs of Chicago, LUHS is a quaternary care system with a 61-acre main medical center campus, the 36-acre Gottlieb Memorial Hospital campus and more than 30 primary and specialty care facilities in Cook, Will and DuPage counties. Loyola University Medical Center’s campus is conveniently located in Maywood, 13 miles west of Chicago’s Loop and 8 miles east of Oak Brook, Ill. At the heart of the medical center campus is a 559-licensed-bed hospital that houses a Level 1 Trauma Center, a Burn Center and the Ronald McDonald® Children's Hospital of Loyola University Medical Center. Also on campus are the Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola Outpatient Center, Center for Heart & Vascular Medicine and Loyola Oral Health Center as well as Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing and the Loyola Center for Fitness. Loyola's Gottlieb campus in Melrose Park includes the 255-licensed-bed community hospital, the Professional Office Building housing 150 private practice clinics, the Adult Day Care, the Gottlieb Center for Fitness, Loyola Center for Metabolic Surgery and Bariatric Care and the Loyola Cancer Care & Research at the Marjorie G. Weinberg Cancer Center at Melrose Park.

Trinity Health is a national Catholic health system with an enduring legacy and a steadfast mission to be a transforming and healing presence within the communities we serve. Trinity is committed to being a people-centered health care system that enables better health, better care and lower costs. Trinity Health has 88 hospitals and hundreds of continuing care facilities, home care agencies and outpatient centers in 21 states and 119,000 employees.