Earle W. Holmes, Jr.
  • Professor
  • Pathology
  • Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Clinical Laboratory Testing
Research Summary

The biologic activities of melanin

For the past eight years, my research has been focused on the investigation of the biological activities of melanin. This work began when a virologist colleague and I found that phytomelanins accounted for the majority of the anti-HSV activity that was present in extracts of the medicinal plant, Echinacea purpurea. We found that phytomelanins inhibited infections by HIV, HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, EBV, Influenza A virus, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, in vitro, and that they were effective intra-vaginal microbicides that prevented HSV-2 infections in mice and Guinea pigs in vivo. We showed that a major mechanism of action of the Echinacea-derived melanin was via inhibition of the attachment and fusion of viruses to the cell membranes of a potential host.


Analytical variability among methods for the measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin d: still adding to the noiseHolmes,E. W.; Garbincius,J.; McKenna,K. M.American Journal of Clinical Pathology 2013 ;140(4):550-560

Chronic fluoxetine reduces autonomic control of cardiac rhythms in rats with congestive heart failureHenze,M.; Tiniakov,R.; Samarel,A.; Holmes,E.; Scrogin,K.American journal of physiology.Heart and circulatory physiology 2013 ;304(3):H444-54

The prognostic value of lymph node cross-sectional cancer area in node-positive breast cancer: a comparison with N stage and lymph node ratioLi,Y.; Holmes,E.; Shah,K.; Albuquerque,K.; Szpaderska,A.; Ersahin,C.Pathology research international 2012 ;2012( ):161964

Non-linear analytical recovery in the DiaSorin Liaison immunoassay for 25-hydroxy vitamin DHolmes,E. W.; Garbincius,J.; McKenna,K. M.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2011 ;412(23-24):2355-2356

Analytic bias among certified methods for the measurement of hemoglobin A1c: a cause for concern?.Holmes,E. W.; Ersahin,C.; Augustine,G. J.; Charnogursky,G. A.; Gryzbac,M.; Murrell,J. V.; McKenna,K. M.; Nabhan,F.; Kahn,S. E.American Journal of Clinical Pathology 2008 ;129(4):540-547

Identification of patients with low-risk for aneuploidy: comparative discriminatory models using linear and machine-learning classifiers in prostate cancer.Venkataraman,G.; Heinze,G.; Holmes,E. W.; Ananthanarayanan,V.; Bostwick,D. G.; Paner,G. P.; Bradford-De La garza,C. M.; Brown,H. G.; Flanigan,R. C.; Wojcik,E. M.Prostate 2007 ;67(14):1524-1536

Determination of ultrafilterable prolactin: elimination of macroprolactin interference with a monomeric prolactin-selective sample pretreatment.Quinn,A. M.; Rubinas,T. C.; Garbincius,C. J.; Holmes,E. W.Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 2006 ;130(12):1807-1812

Gas chromatographic method for detection of urinary sucralose: application to the assessment of intestinal permeabilityFarhadi,A.; Keshavarzian,A.; Holmes,E. W.; Fields,J.; Zhang,L.; Banan,A.Journal of chromatography.B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 2003 ;784(1):145-154

Circadian rhythm of serum total homocysteine in men.Bremner,W. F.; Holmes,E. W.; Kanabrocki,E. L.; Hermida,R. C.; Ayala,D.; Garbincius,J.; Third,J. L.; Ryan,M. D.; Johnson,M.; Foley,S.; Shirazi,P.; Nemchausky,B. A.; Scheving,L. E.American Journal of Cardiology 2000 ;86(10):1153-1156

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