MAYWOOD, Ill. -- A new discovery about the wound-healing process could lead to better treatments for diabetics and other patients who have wounds that are slow to heal.
Loyola University Health System researchers found that certain immune system cells slow the wound-healing process. Thus, it might be possible to improve healing by inactivating these immune system cells, said Elizabeth Kovacs, PhD, who heads the laboratory team that made the discovery.
The findings by Kovacs and colleagues are reported online, in advance of print, in the Journal of Surgical Research.
In the study, the immune system cells that impeded the healing process are called natural killer T (NKT) cells. NKT cells perform beneficial functions such as killing tumor cells and virus-infected cells. However, researchers discovered that NKT cells also migrate to wound sites and impede the healing process.
Kovacs and colleagues used an animal model to examine the effects of NKT cells on healing. Healing was significantly slower in normal mice that had NKT cells than it was in a special breed of mice that lacked NKT cells.
"We demonstrated that early wound closure was accelerated in the absence of NKT cells," Kovacs and colleagues wrote. "Importantly, we also made the novel observation that NKT cells themselves are a constituent of the early wound inflammatory infiltrate."
Certain conditions, such as diabetes and infections, can slow or prevent wounds from healing. The study found that NKT cells may be at least partially to blame. Researchers don't know how NKT cells slow healing. But they believe they may be able to inactivate NKT cells using an antibody. They are testing this prediction in a follow-up study.
Kovacs is a professor and vice chair of research in the Department of Surgery at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. She also is director of research of Loyola's Burn & Shock Trauma Institute.
Co-authors of the study are Jessica Palmer, Julia Tulley, Dr. John Speicher, Douglas Faunce, PhD, first author Dr. David Schneider and Dr. Richard Gamelli. Schneider is a resident at Loyola and Gamelli is dean of the Stritch School of Medicine and director of the Burn & Shock Trauma Institute.
The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and by the Dr. Ralph and Marian Falk Medical Research Trust.
Scott Somers, Ph.D., who manages wound healing research and training grants supported by the NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences, said, "Beyond the novel finding of a fundamental mechanism controlling wound healing, this work also highlights the contributions of physician-scientists like Dr. Schneider, a surgical resident who is training to do hypothesis-based, cutting-edge scientific investigation."
Loyola University Health System (LUHS) is a member of Trinity Health. Based in the western suburbs of Chicago, LUHS is a quaternary care system with a 61-acre main medical center campus, the 36-acre Gottlieb Memorial Hospital campus and more than 30 primary and specialty care facilities in Cook, Will and DuPage counties. The medical center campus is conveniently located in Maywood, 13 miles west of the Chicago Loop and 8 miles east of Oak Brook, Ill. The heart of the medical center campus, Loyola University Hospital, is a 569-licensed-bed facility. It houses a Level 1 Trauma Center, a Burn Center and the Ronald McDonald® Children’s Hospital of Loyola University Medical Center. Also on campus are the Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola Outpatient Center, Center for Heart & Vascular Medicine and Loyola Oral Health Center as well as the LUC Stritch School of Medicine, the LUC Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing and the Loyola Center for Fitness. Loyola's Gottlieb campus in Melrose Park includes the 264-licensed-bed community hospital, the Professional Office Building housing 150 private practice clinics, the Adult Day Care, the Gottlieb Center for Fitness, Loyola Center for Metabolic Surgery and Bariatric Care and the Loyola Cancer Care & Research at the Marjorie G. Weinberg Cancer Center at Melrose Park.